|What is Influenza? |
Flu, also known as the influenza, is a contagious disease that is caused by the flu virus. It attacks the respiratory tract in humans (nose, throat, and lungs). The flu is different from a cold. Flu usually comes on suddenly and may include these symptoms:
- Tiredness (can be extreme)
- Dry cough
- Sore throat
- Nasal congestion
- Body aches
These symptoms are usually referred to as "flu-like symptoms." Please also see the fact sheet " Is it a Cold or Flu?" for more information on flu symptoms.
Anyone Can Get the Flu, But the Disease Is More Severe for Some People
Most people who get flu will recover in one to two weeks, but some people will develop life-threatening complications (such as pneumonia) as a result of the flu. Millions of people in the United States — about 10% to 20% of U.S. residents — will get the flu each year. An average of about 36,000 people per year in the United States die from the flu, and 114,000 per year have to be admitted to the hospital as a result of the flu.
Anyone can get the flu (even healthy people), and serious problems from the flu can happen at any age. People age 65 years and older, people of any age with chronic medical conditions, and very young children are more likely to get complications from the flu.
Pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections are three examples of complications from the flu. The flu can make chronic health problems worse. For example, people with asthma may experience asthma attacks while they have the flu, and people with chronic congestive heart failure may have worsening of this condition that is triggered by the flu.
For a list of groups that are at high risk for complications from flu, see: Who Should Get the Flu Vaccine.
How the flu Virus Is Passed Around
The flu is spread, or transmitted, when a person who has the flu coughs, sneezes, or speaks and sends flu virus into the air, and other people inhale the virus.
The virus enters the nose, throat, or lungs of a person and begins to multiply, causing symptoms. Flu may, less often, be spread when a person touches a surface that has flu viruses on it – a door handle, for instance – and then touches his or her nose or mouth.
The Flu Is Contagious
A person can spread the flu starting one day before he or she feels sick. Adults can continue to pass the flu virus to others for another three to seven days after symptoms start. Children can pass the virus for longer than seven days. Symptoms start one to four days after the virus enters the body. Some persons can be infected with the flu virus but have no symptoms. During this time, those persons can still spread the virus to others.
How To Know if You Have the Flu
Your respiratory illness might be the flu if you have sudden onset of body aches, fever, and respiratory symptoms, and your illness occurs during November through April (the usual flu season in the Northern Hemisphere). However, during this time, other respiratory illnesses can cause similar symptoms and the flu can be caught at any time of the year. It is impossible to tell for sure if you have the flu based on symptoms alone. Doctors can perform tests to see if you have the flu if you are in the first few days of your illness.
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What You Should Do If You Get the Flu
- Drink plenty of liquids
- Avoid using alcohol and tobacco
- Take medication to relieve the symptoms of flu
Flu is caused by a virus, so antibiotics (like penicillin) don't work to cure it. The best way to prevent the flu is to get a flu vaccine (flu shot) each fall, before flu season.
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Do Not Give Aspirin To a Child or Teenager Who Has the Flu
Never give aspirin to children or teenagers who have flu-like symptoms – and particularly fever – without first speaking to your doctor. Giving aspirin to children and teenagers who have the flu can cause a rare but serious illness called Reye syndrome. Children or teenagers with the flu should get plenty of rest, drink lots of liquids, and take medicines that contain no aspirin to relieve symptoms.
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The Myth of the "Stomach Flu"
Many people use the term "stomach flu" to describe illnesses with nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. These symptoms can be caused by many different viruses, bacteria, or even parasites. While vomiting, diarrhea, and being nauseous or "sick to your stomach" can sometimes be related to the flu – particularly in children – these problems are rarely the main symptoms of flu. The flu is a respiratory disease and not a stomach or intestinal disease.
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